Skip to main content
European Commission logo
Scientific paper

Export control and nuclear safeguards

ESARDA Bulletin - The International Journal of Nuclear Safeguards and Non-Proliferation


ISSN: 1977-5296, DOI: 10.3011/ESARDA.IJNSNP.2020.6
Publication date
1 June 2020
Joint Research Centre


Volume: 60, June 2020, pages 60-66,

Authors: Filippo Sevini, Guido Renda, Simone Cagno, Xavier Arnes Novau, Christos Charatsis, Willem Janssens

European Commission Joint Research Centre

Abstract:The control of strategic trade has been set up progressively in the past five decades as a barrier against the diffusion of sensitive materials, components and technologies, which could be used for the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. The result has been a continuously evolving multi-layered regime which comprises treaties, inte rnational agreements, UN Security Council Resolutions, embargo measures and national laws. In particular, nuclear export controls and international safeguards have developed in parallel in phases triggered by major international events, which showed that the insufficient scope of the controls existing at that time, as well as the legal framework’s loopholes could be exploited to acquire sensitive goods. Although not implementing export controls, the IAEA benefits from their existence and from the inclusion of Model Additional Protocol’s requirements related to its Annexes I and II that also provide background information for IAEA’s verification activities. The paper reviews the background and key aspects of strategic export controls, discussing their contents and relevance to countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction as well as the synergies with nuclear safeguards, describing challenges and open issues.

Keywords: export control; nuclear safeguards; non-prolif-eration; dual-use; strategic trade

Reference guidline:

Sevini, F., Renda, G., Cagno, S., Arnes-Novau, X., Charatsis, C., & Janssens, W. (2020). Export control and nuclear safeguards. ESARDA Bulletin - The International Journal of Nuclear Safeguards and Non-proliferation, 60, 60-66.



17 MAY 2022
Export control and nuclear safeguards