- Publication date
- 1 January 2014
- Joint Research Centre
3IntroductionStrategic export control1is one of the pillars of nuclear non-proliferation, and complements both theinternational safeguards and physical protectionregimes. It monitors and controls international transfers of nuclear and non-nuclear materials, technology and equipment. Since theend of WWII, the State-level proliferation in the 60’s and 70’s, and the advent of transnational illicit procurement networks in the 90’s and early 2000s, the awareness of WMD proliferation risks has grown.
Non-proliferation measures no longer focus solely on the State but has been broadened to a trans-(and sub-) national dimension, addressing proliferation networks, terrorists and other non-state actors.